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Existing Resources

There is already existing research on climate change and disability, including literature on general connections, social factors, disaster preparedness and other issues. Below is a list of resources that we have found online through our research: our original compilation was assembled in 2016, and we have added more as time goes on. The amount of articles and literature continue to grow, so if you find any more articles or research related to climate change and disability, please let us know by emailing Alex Ghenis at and we will add those resources to this page.

Articles, Editorials, and Info Pages

Disability and Disaster Response in the Age of Climate Change David M Perry, PS Mag. Dec 2017

It’s Time to Recognize Climate Change as a Disability Rights Issue Tiffany Yu, Rooted in Rights. Dec 2017

Disability, Climate Change and Natural Disasters (podcast) Disability Rap podcast. Oct 2017

Disability Inclusion in Climate-Related Disaster Preparation Marcie Roth, Hilton Prize Coalition. Sep 2017

The Disabled Are Probably the Most Vulnerable to Climate Change Effects Robin Scher, TruthDig. Apr 2017

Climate Adaptation, Adaptive Climate Justice, and People with Disabilities Alex Ghenis, Union of Concerned Scientists guest commentary. Apr 2017

The End of the World as We Know It Alex Ghenis, New Mobility Magazine. Mar 2016

 “Resilience, Disability, And Climate Change: What is the Role of Education” – A Keynote Speech at The Pacific Rim International Conference on Disability and Diversity. Kathryn Ross Wayne. 2014

Voices of People with Disabilities Must Be Heard in Climate Change Adaptation Debate Kate Wilson, International Institute for Environment and Development. May 2014

Economic Inclusion of Disabled People Key to Climate Resilience Elizabeth Braw, The Guardian. Nov 2013

Climate Change and Disability: Prezi Active Presentation Aruna Dahal. Sep 2011

A Just Climate: Our Responsibility to Act Caritas Australia. 2009

BBC Ouch!: Where Disability Meets Climate Change Kate Ansell, BBC Ouch! 2009

Hasaan Foundation: Disabilities and Climate Change Hasaan Foundation

Academic Articles, Papers, & Research

Environmental Citizenship and Disability Equality: The Need for an Inclusive Approach Deborah Fenney Salkeld, Environmental Politics Journal. Dec 2017

Disability and Climate Resilience: a Literature Review Smith, Simard, Twigg, Kett, and Cole. Leonard Cheshire Disability & UK Aid. Apr 2017

A Policies of Inclusion and Exclusion for the Persons with Disabilities (PWDs) interlinked with The Climate Change Adaptation: Case Study of Bangladesh Natasha Israt Kabir, International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding. Aug 2016

CQ University Grant Announcement for Developing Climate Change Vulnerability Index for Queenslanders with Disabilities. CQ University. July 2014

Understanding Impacts of Climate Change and Adverse Weather Effects on People with a Disability and Their Carers Rae Walker, Enliven (Australia). Jul 2013

Climate Change, Water, Sanitation and Energy Insecurity: Invisibility of People with Disabilities Gregor Wolbring & Verlyn Leopatra, Canadian Journal of Disability Studies. Aug 2012

Enhancing Persons with Disability Responses & Participation in the Climate Change Mitigation – A Grant Program Received by United Disability Empowerment in Kenya. (Satisfactorily Completed 2011) The GEF Small Grants Program, UNDP. 2011

A Culture of Neglect: Climate Discourse and Disabled People Gregor Worbling, Media and Culture Journal. Oct 2009

Disability and Climate Change: Understanding Vulnerability and Building Resilience in a Changing World CBM

Climate Change and Disaster Risk Reduction – Mainstreaming Disability CBM

Access to Sustainable Lifestyles: Disability and Environmental Citizenship Deborah Fenney Salkeld, Working Paper

Sustainable Lifestyles for All? Disability Equality, Sustainability and the Limitations of Current UK Policy Deborah Fenney Salkeld, Working Paper

Policy Papers

Getting It Wrong: An Indictment with a Blueprint for Getting It Right The Partnership for Inclusive Disaster Strategies. May 2018

IDA and IDDC Advocacy Package: Engagement in The Post-2015 Development Agenda Inclusive of and Accessible to Persons with Disabilities. International Disability Alliance (IDA) and International Disability and Development Consortium (IDDC)


The Impact of Climate Change on People with Disabilities: Report of the 5-Day E-Discussion Hosted by GPDD & World Bank The Global Partnership for Disability & Development (GPDD) and The World Bank (Human Development Network – Social Protection/Disability & Development Team (July 8, 2009)

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Officials and planners around the world are preparing for oncoming climate change, and we want to help. The New Earth Disability team aims to work with other nonprofits and government agencies to incorporate disability into climate change-related efforts at every level possible. This could include anything from drafting disability sections into planning documents, to connecting disability and climate adaptation stakeholders at different geographies. We are also interested in specific topics ranging from long-term infrastructure planning over to disaster readiness and response (DRR) and other emergency efforts.

Some of our past, current and future partnerships include:

  • Providing input for government climate impact assessments and planning processes. This includes National Climate Assessment and California State-level activities (such as the Adapting to Rising Tides initiative) .
  • Educating disaster planners and the public about including disability in disaster readiness. Our staff has worked with disaster shelter managers to train Functional Assessment Service Teams (FAST) for well over 5 years. We also are developing disaster readiness guides for individuals with paralysis, with the generous support of the Christopher & Dana Reeve Foundation.
  • Researching regional resilience needs of people with disabilities and developing guidance for agencies and government planners. Our team is working alongside the Metropolitan Transportation Commission in the San Francisco Bay Area to research the transportation needs of the Bay Area disability community – and develop plans and educational materials to build more dynamic transportation systems for people with disabilities.

We are excited to partner with other entities, whether through grant-funded initiatives, direct consultation or as part of an official proceeding. For more info please contact Alex Ghenis at or Marsha Saxton at

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Education Materials

Public education is a cornerstone of any successful initiative, and we strive to engage the public through our materials and productions. Our team is committed to creating materials, videos and other educational resources about climate change and disability to distribute widely and bring the public on board. Of course, we want to connect to some specific groups – the disability community, climate change advocates, and policymakers – but we hope to reach the broader public as well. This part of our work aims to meet many goals: raising awareness, engaging advocates, and providing the information needed for people to prepare for climate change at a personal level. Among other things, we have created or are pursuing:

  • Editorials and other articles highlighting the disability-climate change connection
  • Information materials (such as handouts or worksheets) showing steps that people can take to increase personal climate resilience
  • Videos including shorter features and longer documentary pieces
  • Webpages with links, resources and more detail about the connections between climate change and disability

It is always amazing to see the impact that education can have on people’s lives – because when the public is aware of these important issues, they will buy in to support real change. And when they are given the resources to prepare on their own, individuals with disabilities can be much more resilient when climate change comes their way. We are always interested in partners who can help develop these materials and spread the word – if you would like to join us, please email Alex Ghenis at Thanks!

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Educational Series

Our NED team has presented at many conferences and events around California and other locations, including the Pacific Rim International Conference on Disability & Diversity in Hawaii and the American Public Health Association conference in Atlanta, Georgia. We strive to educate the public and major stakeholders about the important connection between climate change and disability through presentations, webinars, panel discussions and more. So far, this project has received widespread recognition as an incredibly important topic that has cross-cutting connections in many areas:

  • Disaster preparedness
  • Adaptation & infrastructure planning
  • Social and environmental justice
  • Disability rights
  • and more…

We are excited to partner with any conference organizers or other event planners to raise awareness about the intersection of climate change and disability. If you would like to partner with us and expand this social justice issue, please contact or

Some of our educational materials and outreach include:

Brown Girl Green podcast – guest appearance

NED staff Alex Ghenis and Marsha Saxton joined the “Brown Girl Green” podcast in May 2018 to discuss environmental justice and people with disabilities. Our team loves to participate in interviews and thanks Kristy, the BGG host, for the invitation! You can also check out the rest of the podcast’s archives.

Climate change and Disability in California: January 2018 Webinar

This webinar looks at the connection between climate change and disability, recent experiences in California, and the state’s health equity goals. Alex Ghenis from WID is joined by Vance Taylor from the Office of Access and Functional Needs in the California Gov.’s Office of Emergency Services, and Linda Helland from the Office of Health Equity at the California Department of Public Health. The presentation starts just over 6 minutes in, so jump forward to get started!

Climate Change and Disability: Presentation and Workshop

This video features highlights from a workshop in summer of 2017 covering climate justice and inclusive climate resilience. Nearly 40 attendees listened to presentations from Alex Ghenis and Marsha Saxton and had breakout discussions to find solutions for the future. The video includes thoughts from several workshop attendees.

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Heat Waves and Extreme Heat

The Danger of Extreme Heat

Extreme heat events and heat waves can be very dangerous for human health. This is because our body temperature needs to stay at about 98.6°F, otherwise our organs and muscles may become stressed. When outside temperatures are low, our metabolism may speed up to increase our body temperature, and we can put on more clothing or turn up the room temperature. When the temperature is too high, our metabolism may slow down, we will sweat to radiate away heat (evaporating sweat takes heat with it), and we may turn on a fan or air-conditioning to cool off. However, if the temperature is too high and/or so humid that our sweat cannot easily evaporate, our bodies may begin to overheat. Single extremely hot days or several hot days in a row can lead to heat stress, heat exhaustion, or in the worst cases, death. (This is especially harsh when heat waves also include warm nights, so individuals don’t have any time for their bodies to cool off). In fact, the mass European heat wave of 2003 led to an estimated 70,000 excess deaths over a three-week span due to people’s difficulty keeping their body temperature cool enough to hold on.

Climate Change, Extreme Heat and People with Disabilities

Climate change is going to dramatically increase the frequency and intensity of extreme heat events in the coming years. According to the Centers for Disease Control, “most definitions [of an extreme heat event] refer to an extended period of time (several days or more) with unusually hot weather conditions that potentially can harm human health.” Under a low-emissions climate change scenario where temperatures increase 2°C (3.6°F) over the next several decades, the length of the longest extreme heat events may grow by a full week, and some parts of the United States (mainly the Southwest and Great Plains) will see over 60 more days per year above 100°F. A higher-emissions scenario of 3.5°C (6.3°F) would see the longest extreme heat events increase between 10-20 days, and most of the US would experience at least 30 extra 100°F-plus days per year, with a good portion seeing over 100 more days annually. (For more details, check out the CDC’s full publication)

a series of 3 graphs comparing a range of temperatures. Each has a current “bell curve” distribution of cold to hot temperatures, with a second bell curve showing different climate scenarios. The first, “increase in mean,” has the bell curve shifted slightly to the right and has “fewer cold extremes” and “more hot extremes.” The second, “increase in variance,” shows a shorter and wider new bell curve with “more cold extremes” and “more hot extremes.” A final graph, “increase in mean and variance,” shows a shorter and wider graph that is shifted to the right, has about the same cold extremes and dramatically more hot extremes.
These 3 graphs from the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) show how climate change can influence the distribution of hot and cold days. Daily temperatures (for daily maximum and nightly minimum) for any given area exist on a “bell curve,” where a few days a year are extremely cold and a few are extremely hot, and there are more days closer to the average. Because climate change increases average temperatures, it will shift the curve to the right (figure a), leading to fewer cold extremes and more hot extremes. Climate change may also lead to more variable temperatures. Figure b shows that with more variability when averages stay the same, there is both more cold extremes and more hot extremes. When both averages and variance increase (figure c), as is likely to happen, cold extremes are likely to stay about the same but there will be many more hot extremes. | IPCC AR5
a set of graphs comparing the distribution of temperatures for the time periods of 1951-1980 and 1981-2010. The top graph shows daily minimum temperatures and their probability, while the bottom graph shows daily maximum temperatures. In both graphs, the 1951-1980 timeframe was a relatively even bell curve centered at 0°C and going from -15°C to 15°C. The 1981-2010 timeframe is shorter and wider and shifted to the right, with fewer extremely cold events and more extremely hot events.
This set of graphs from the IPCC compares the distribution of temperatures for the time periods of 1951-1980 and 1981-2010. The top graph shows daily minimum temperatures and their probability, while the bottom graph shows daily maximum temperatures. In both graphs, the 1951-1980 timeframe was a relatively even bell curve centered at 0°C and going from -15°C to 15°C. The 1981-2010 timeframe is shorter and wider and shifted to the right, with fewer extremely cold events (-5°C or less) and more extremely hot events (5°C or more). Average nighttime minimums also increased more than average daily maximums. This matches with the “increase in mean and variance” scenarios in the first set of IPCC graphs. | IPCC AR5

People with disabilities are especially vulnerable to extreme heat events for many reasons. Assorted disabilities often make it difficult to regulate body temperature: for example, people with high-level spinal cord injuries have a lower ability to sweat to cool their body temperature; meanwhile, individuals with chronic health conditions may have difficulty with any physiological stress, which certainly includes extreme heat. Other social factors also make an impact. People with disabilities experience disproportionate poverty levels and live in lower-quality housing on average, compared to those without disabilities. This often means they have less access to air-conditioning at home, or may have less money to pay air-conditioning bills if they do have A/C. Some cooling shelters may not be easy to get to for people relying on public transit or who are isolated at home – and those cooling shelters may be inaccessible and/or not have necessary medical or other disability supports as well. The combination of physical and social factors means that people with disabilities are, on average, more vulnerable to heat stress, heat exhaustion or death during extreme heat events.

Extreme Heat and Inclusive Climate Resilience

Comprehensive climate resilience plans should address extreme heat through public education, city and regional planning, smart housing development, and providing access to air-conditioned cooling centers. Because of the unique experience of people with disabilities, resilience initiatives should address their needs during hot days and heat waves, from living conditions to immediate responses. Examples include:

  • Pursue educational outreach about best practices during heat waves (i.e. keeping hydrated, being in the shade or finding air-conditioning, and limiting exercise), including in accessible formats such as braille and screen-reader-compliant digital documents.
  • Provide funding to support people with disabilities to install air-conditioning and pay electric bills during especially hot stretches of time. Government can especially support retrofits of subsidized and public housing for improved insulation and air conditioning.
  • Guarantee that newer housing with quality insulation and/or air-conditioning is fully accessible. For example, all new apartment and condo buildings should ideally have automatic door openers at the ground level and a designated number of units with wheelchair-accessible, roll-in showers. New buildings may also set aside some units for low-income residents.
  • Take active efforts to inform the disability community about upcoming extreme heat events through social networks, government agencies and community organizations. Provide recommendations for maintaining health and information about cooling shelters; ensure that all announcements are available in accessible formats.
  • Ensure that there are sufficient accessible cooling shelters or public buildings with air-conditioning (i.e. libraries and community centers), including with disability-related supports and staff trained in disability etiquette. Agencies or organizations can also facilitate travel to shelters as needed, for example through paratransit or even volunteer networks.
  • The front of St. John's community center in Portland, Oregon. This building has a ramp with handrails and green plants out front.
    Public “cooling shelters,” such as libraries and community centers, should be fully accessible and easy for people with disabilities to reach by car, public transit or paratransit. | Wikipedia (Author: Another Believer)

    For a more in-depth overview of how climate change will lead to more heat waves and extreme heat events, and what that means for people with disabilities, please visit the PDF archives of the New Earth Disability blog’s two-part Heat Wave series!

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Climate-Related Migration and Displacement

Let’s face it, moving can be difficult for anybody. Loading up furniture, clothes, and personal items, driving or flying to a new home, and re-establishing roots takes time and energy. This can be especially tough for people with disabilities, who need to locate a home that meets their needs (i.e. with a ramp or elevator, if they use a wheelchair), secure transportation, and often rebuild personal support networks and sign up for government services in a new county, state, or even country. Unfortunately, many more people will need to move in the future because of the effects of climate change, which will impact people with disabilities in dramatic ways.

Climate Change and Migration

The effects of climate change – such as storms, rising sea levels, and drought – can often push people to find new homes in safer, more stable climates. This “climate migration” can happen for several reasons. Some include:

  • Being displaced by natural disasters (i.e. evacuating ahead of a hurricane or leaving a town after it is destroyed by forest fires) and never returning home.
  • Leaving areas with few resources needed for survival, such as limited food or water in regions affected by drought.
  • Abandoning areas experiencing chronic flooding due to rising oceans. This is especially relevant in low-lying coastal areas such as southern Florida and Bangladesh, or on islands close to sea level. In some cases, these areas may be permanently covered by the ocean – in others, occasional “nuisance flooding” from high tides or severe flooding from storm surges becomes so problematic that people leave.
  • Climate-related factors can sometimes lead to violence – for example, through conflict over limited water resources or arable land during drought. If individuals try to escape this conflict and become refugees, they could be considered “climate refugees” to some extent.

Climate-related migration can either be “internal” (within a country) or “external” (between countries). An example of internal migration is farmers leaving rural areas for cities when crops are affected by climate change; in fact, this was often the case in Syria, which some experts consider a factor that contributed to violent conflict and the Syrian civil war. External migration is expected to be a coming problem in Bangladesh, a country in South Asia almost entirely within a few meters of sea-level. Its 163 million residents may be displaced as the oceans rise, and as the country is surrounded by other nations (India and Myanmar/Burma), Bangladeshis will likely face legal or other barriers as they try to migrate to escape flooded land.

According to the International Organization on Migration, there will likely be upwards of 100 million “climate migrants” in the coming decades – and that number may reach nearly 1 billion by 2050 under the worst circumstances. This number can be hard to calculate, as people may have many reasons for moving and it can be hard to attribute specific environmental impacts (and related social or economic changes) solely to climate change. Either way, the migration numbers will be significant. These mass population shifts are likely to stoke social and political tensions, stress economies and resources, and in the worst cases lead to conflict. Areas of in-migration may find it difficult to support new residents with food, water, jobs and other necessities; areas of out-migration will see their economies shrink with related consequences. It is important to address this proactively.

Luckily, there can be some adaptive responses. Increasing resilience to climate impacts can help residents remain in-place and not have to migrate under climate stresses; reinforcing economies and infrastructure for immigrants can support population growth; and building international agreements for the human rights of migrants can support their safety and well-being. These efforts and more will stabilize economies, environments, and political relationships worldwide.

A crowd in Cambridge, UK, protests in favor of accepting refugees from Syria and other countries. There are already political struggles around managing refugee crises, and a growing number of migrants from climate-related factors may create similar tensions. | The Cambridge Student/John Sutton

Climate Migration and Disability

People with disabilities already face difficulties when they move, whether it is through finding accessible shelter and transportation, getting new jobs, or signing up for medical care and social services. The disability community may encounter even more barriers when moving is unplanned or happens on short notice, as often is the case with climate-related migration. Some of the many issues people with disabilities may experience during climate migration include:

  • Having little or no access to accessible transportation that can support them, their mobility equipment, and necessary supplies as they migrate. This can be difficult enough with time to plan – it is especially hard when people must escape extreme weather events on short notice.
  • Being unable to find appropriate housing that meets disability-related needs, including physical accessibility and proximity to public transportation and medical/social services. In many cases, people may be forced to live in emergency shelters for extended periods of time, without appropriate physical access and disability services.
  • Losing contact with personal support networks including family, friends, and caregivers. This may also be the case if members of the support network choose to relocate, but the person with a disability does not move. Losing support networks can jeopardize people’s independence, health, psycho-social balance and economic well-being.
  • Being unable to maintain healthcare or other social services as somebody moves across cities, counties, states, or to a new country. This is often difficult considering the patchwork, location-based nature of healthcare and social services (in the US, many government benefits are managed at the county level and there can be wait-times of weeks or months when people reapply in new locations). Non-citizens and new immigrants face extra barriers to enroll in government services, further jeopardizing health and independence.
  • Facing unemployment or under-employment after moving to a new location. Unfortunately, the job market can be difficult to navigate for people with disabilities: there may be limited job opportunities that fit an individual’s personal abilities, or in some cases there may be subtle or explicit discrimination in hiring and management. Securing a new job that “works” and provides a reasonable income can take time or be nearly impossible, depending on the situation.
  • Having immigration requests rejected or delayed based on an individual’s disability. This is often the case with job- and education-related immigration restrictions (i.e. H1B visas), combined with the nature of available jobs and the view that people with disabilities are “unfit” for employment. If a person with a disability is turned away at the border but their family or caregivers are admitted, it can jeopardize their well-being and survival.
An elderly Filipina woman sitting in a manual wheelchair is pushed up ramp in the back of a transport airplane by American troops. Her hair is blowing in the wind.
United States troops help a woman with a disability evacuate the Philippines during Typhoon Haiyan in 2013. Extreme weather can displace people temporarily or permanently, and finding accessible transportation to evacuate may be difficult. | U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Daniel M. Young

Best Practices and Next Steps

Often-times, the systems that people with disabilities build around themselves to maintain quality of life (including housing, government benefits, personal support, employment and more) can take years to assemble and are very tied to their place of living. Having to relocate may endanger these systems, and ultimately independence and well-being. On the flip-side, if people with disabilities choose to remain in the face of climate stressors, they may see support systems slowly break apart or simply experience dangers given extra vulnerability to climate effects (such as heat waves). Considering this, individuals and governments can take actions to support people with disabilities faced with the prospect of climate-related displacement. Some actions may include:

  • Guarantee access to appropriate, accessible transportation that can support individuals, mobility equipment, and other necessary supplies through evacuation and planned migration. Provide emergency transportation in a timely manner, especially in the face of climate-related natural disasters such as hurricanes and wildfires.
  • Assist people with disabilities, their families and support networks to stay connected through migration wherever possible. If support networks will break up as people with disabilities move, provide access to social services, caregivers, communication and other resources to help maintain independence and well-being.
  • Ensure that there is accessible temporary and permanent housing along migration pathways and at destinations. A large part of this is expanding the accessible housing stock in general, as building homes is time- and resource-intensive and it may not be possible to predict all areas of in-migration. Temporary housing including shelters, room-shares (i.e. airbnb), and motels are also important and provide some flexibility. These must be accessible and provide appropriate disability supports as well.
  • Address human rights issues in law and policy, specifically aimed at the connection between climate migration and people with disabilities. Currently, the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) addresses “situations of risk and humanitarian emergencies” and “liberty of movement and nationality.” The United Nations Convention and Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees also references equality for people with disabilities in refugee situations. However, the Convention and Protocol only cover refugees from conflicts, but not environmental or climate migrants. International conventions and human rights laws can be built around the UNCRPD and Convention and Protocol on Refugees, but should specifically address climate migrants with disabilities (and climate migrants in general).
  • Simply reinforcing existing human rights and disability rights laws and policies can benefit climate migrants, even if there are not yet international agreements specifically on climate migration and disability. Guaranteeing access to healthcare and social services, protecting against discrimination, supporting employment, etc. will benefit internal migrants who otherwise may face barriers; these actions will also support the needs of international migrants if they are implemented correctly.
  • Support economic vitality and independence for people with disabilities in general. Personal independence and financial stability are large factors in one’s ability to manage climate stresses and avoid the need to migrate, and also manage the individual requirements that come with relocating if necessary.
Health insurance is often tied to residency in a country, state or even county. Access to insurance for new residents – through quick applications, transferable benefits or universal coverage – will protect health outcomes for climate migrants. | Nick Youngson/Creative Commons 3

Large-scale migration is one of the most daunting consequences of climate change: it can lead to resource stress, social unrest, economic disruptions, and difficulties upholding human rights. This all is especially dangerous for people with disabilities, who may face discrimination, barriers to movement, and lack of access to necessary housing, employment, services and healthcare. It is important to guarantee those necessary supports and uphold the human rights of climate migrants with disabilities before, during, and after they move.

To find out more about this connection, please read Alex Ghenis’s white paper in the International Organization on Migration’s environmental migration series. We also have available the archive of the three-part series from the original “New Earth Disability” disability & climate change blog.

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NED Blog, Newsletters, Articles & Editorials

The New Earth Disability team has produced many publications over the last several years. NED began as a blog in 2014 and has transformed into a full initiative with research, and ongoing newsletter, public education, and partnerships. Here are some of our existing resources:

  1. The NED blog
  2. NED newsletter archive
  3. Outside research, articles and editorials

The New Earth Disability Blog

The “New Earth Disability” blog was started in 2014 by WID Policy and Research Specialist Alex Ghenis, with the goal of understanding the intersection of climate change and disability. The blog includes several shorter editorials on the need for adaptation and the format of the historic COP 21 climate change Summit in Paris in 2015. There are also two longer research series on heat waves and climate-related migration, with two posts and three posts, respectively.

Editorials on Adaptation

Climate change will progress to some extent no matter how much we reduce our carbon emissions. In these posts, NED covers why it is important to adapt to the coming climate change rather than just focus on limiting greenhouse gas emissions. The blog also addresses why it is important to adapt with a special focus on people with disabilities.

The next piece was originally published on the blog for the Union of Concerned Scientists, who dedicated their work in the month of April to raising awareness about climate change. Thank you for all of your efforts!

Editorials on the 2015 COP21 Paris Summit

The landmark climate change Summit in Paris in the fall of 2015, called the “21st Conference of the Parties” or “COP21,” established a global framework to limit emissions with the goal of staying below 2°C of warming compared to preindustrial levels. The Summit also focused on staying below 1.5°C, if possible. These blog posts reflect on the Paris Summit in two ways: first, the blog say that the summit itself should have put much more focus on adapting and preparing for climate change, rather than just cutting emissions. And second, the blog outlines why setting a goal of 2°C is the wrong way to think: instead, we should be focusing on the amount of CO2 that is present in the atmosphere – and realistically, 2°C is not possible to meet. So, we must move beyond that and sent more realistic goals.

Heat Waves and Extreme Heat (2 Parts)

Climate change will lead to a massive increase in the frequency and intensity of heat waves and extreme heat events. These NED posts outline the causes and consequences of those extreme heat events, including the impacts on human health. It also shows how these disproportionately affect people with disabilities, their health and well-being. And finally, the posts outline some recommendations to protect the health and well-being of people with disabilities as heat waves progress even more into the future.

Climate-Related Migration (3 parts)

It is projected that hundreds of millions of people will be displaced and migrate due to the consequences of climate change, including evacuating from extreme weather events, escaping flooding shorelines, and becoming refugees from conflict sparked by climate factors. This migration will be especially hard for people with disabilities, who may lack access to accessible transportation or housing, experience difficulty maintaining or reenroll in healthcare and social services, or simply be turned away at the border because of their disability. These three posts cover the connection between climate change and migration, what that migration means for people with disabilities, and recommended actions to protect their lives and well-being.

NED Newsletter and Archives

New Earth Disability has a regular newsletter, published several times per year, that can be delivered to your email’s inbox! Please enroll for the current newsletter for NED. A newsletter archive for NED is also available.

March 2018: Climate Change and the Medical/Social Models of Disability: the Philosophical Connections

December 2017: Disability and Disasters: a Troubling Year

February 2017: An Introduction to Disability Climate Justice

Outside Writing

The New Earth Disability team is always working to raise awareness of the connection between climate change and disability. With that in mind, we have produced several academic pieces and other articles for outside publications and websites.

Here are a few of our past publications:

The Environmental Impact of Wheel Life.” Alex Ghenis, New Mobility magazine. September 2018

Disability Inclusion in Climate Change: Impacts and Intersections.” Marsha Saxton and Alex Ghenis, Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Equality and Diversity – An International Journal. 2018

 “Climate Adaptation, Adaptive Climate Justice, and People with Disabilities.” Alex Ghenis, Union of Concerned Scientists guest commentary. April 2017

Making Migration Accessible: Inclusive Relocation for People with Disabilities.” Alex Ghenis, International Organization on Migration Policy Brief Series. June 2016

 “The End of the World as We Know It – Climate Change, Climate Justice and Disability.” Alex Ghenis, New Mobility magazine. March 2016

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Groundbreaking Research

Research on Climate & Disability

Research has been a cornerstone of WID’s work for decades and is a vital component of new Earth Disability project. Why is research important? The answer is simple: we must understand the complex dynamics between climate change and disability to develop the best strategies for resilience. The New Earth Disability initiative uses groundbreaking research covering a range of disabilities, climate impacts, and geographies in intersectional dynamics. Our existing publications cover high-scale research on such topics as heat waves and migration, and we plan much more in the future. This research can be done on its own or as a part of larger policy initiatives and partnerships – for example, through community focus groups to understand local needs and develop adaptation strategies.

WID works with partners to publish research and policy papers, such as this piece from the International Organization on Migration’s Policy Brief Series, “Making migration accessible: Inclusive relocation for people with disabilities”

This research will require partnerships with other agencies, institutions, and organizations which address both climate change and disability issues. Some important research topics include:

  • Existing consequences of climate change and how it has affected people with disabilities
  • Successful advocacy, engagement and response policies
  • Specific topics such as disaster relief and recovery (DRR) or migration policy
  • Focusing in on specific stories, locations or events
  • Utilizing research to develop next steps and avenues for climate adaptation

The information that emerges from groundbreaking research can be used to make positive change at many levels. Ideally, our findings will support stakeholders from activists to policymakers to other researchers looking to expand this important field. As is often the case, it will also take time, energy, and partners – so if you would like to partner or support our projects, please email Alex Ghenis at

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Introduction to Climate Change

How Does Global Warming Work?

A painting of a nature landscape. The left third of the painting shows blue skies with some clouds, green grass and the left half of a tree with many green leaves. A vertical line down the center of the tree splits the landscape, and the right two-thirds shows dead tree branches, a bright orange-and-red sky, a blazing sun, and desert sand instead of green grass. 4 birds fly together near the right border.
Climate change may transform landscapes at every place on earth. | Pixabay

The Atmosphere, Greenhouse Gases and Temperature

The Earth – which includes continents, islands, wilderness, cities, rivers, and oceans – is surrounded by a layer of gases called the atmosphere. There are many different gases in the atmosphere including oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and hundreds more. This atmosphere is incredibly important: among other things, it contains oxygen for humans and other animals to breathe, and carbon dioxide to help plants grow. Ozone and other gases protect us from cosmic radiation, and meteorites burn up in the atmosphere instead of smashing into Earth. The atmosphere provides many other benefits and is vital for nature, humans, and everything else on our planet.

The atmosphere also helps keep the earth at a stable temperature, unlike the freezing vacuum of space. This happens because the Sun, a fiery ball of gases, sends out rays of heat through space. When those rays reach the Earth’s atmosphere, some heat goes back out to space – but certain gases trap some of it and keep the atmosphere a stable temperature (even through cloudy days or during the night). The gases that trap heat and keep the earth warm are called “greenhouse gases” (GHGs), mainly because they act like a glass greenhouse to keep things warm. There are many of these greenhouse gases in the atmosphere: the most important and prevalent ones are carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) – and even though they make up a small percentage of the atmosphere, they are largely what keeps the earth from freezing and allow us to live on it.

However, the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has been increasing since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in 1870. That’s when people discovered fossil fuels – such as coal, oil, and natural gas – and started burning them in power plants and engines to create energy for electricity, vehicles and more. Burning these fossil fuels does more than just create energy: it also releases carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere (these are called “carbon emissions”). Those carbon emissions have drastically increased the atmospheric concentration of CO2 since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. In 1870, CO2 levels were approximately 270 parts per million (ppm), but as of May 2018 they are over 410 ppm. Because there are more heat-trapping gases, the earth is getting warmer: the average global temperature has increased by about 1°C, or 1.8°F, since 1870. This amount of “global warming” may not seem like a lot, but it has massive global consequences.

The 2 graphs below show changes in global CO2 levels over the past 800,000 years (top) and since 1700 (bottom), until June 5, 2018. The earth has gone through variations in CO2 over many thousands of years, largely due to shifts in the sun’s output and the earth’s orbit. Over the past 800,000 years, CO2 has fluctuated between a low of 170 ppm and a high of about 300 ppm (up until the modern “industrial era”). However, we have increased CO2 levels above 400 ppm – well more than anything seen in hundreds of millennia. To see different time frames, check out the Scripps Institute of Oceanography’s “Keeling Curve” website.

A graph showing carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere from 800,000 years ago until today. The CO2 levels went up and down many times from a low of 180 parts per million (ppm) to around 300 ppm – but the graph shoots straight upward in the past 150 years and is now over 400 ppm. A reading at the top of the graph says “411.15 ppm”
Scientists have calculated the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere over the past 800,000 years by studying ice cores until 1958 and using precise sensors in Hawaii since then. From 800,000 years ago until 1900, CO2 levels never went above 300 ppm. In the last 150 years, they have shot up to over 410 ppm. On June 5, 2018, the level was 411.15 ppm.| Scripps Institute of Oceanography
This graph shows a close-up of CO2 levels from 1700 until today. Atmospheric concentrations of CO2 began growing slowly starting in 1870, and have increased dramatically over the past several decades. The rate of increase continues to accelerate.
This graph shows more recent CO2 data, from 1700 until June 5, 2018. Humans started burning fossil fuels in the 1870s, and CO2 levels started growing notably just before 1900. CO2 concentrations have been growing dramatically faster in recent decades as we put out more carbon emissions. | Scripps Institute of Oceanography

This CO2 variation changes weather and other aspects of the world, such as ocean levels. During times of low CO2, the earth falls into “ice ages,” and when CO2 rises we enter “interglacials.” Just looking at ocean levels shows these variations can make a huge difference in the world around us. According to NASA’s page on climate change and sea level:

“Global sea level has fluctuated widely in the recent geologic past. It stood 4-6 meters above the present during the last interglacial period, 125,000 years ago, but was 120 m lower at the peak of the last ice age, around 20,000 years ago. A study of past sea level fluctuations provides a longer-term geologic context, which can help us better anticipate future trends.”

What will our Future be?

So, higher CO2 and other GHG levels can dramatically change the environment. Unfortunately, CO2 concentrations are still rising, and the temperature is rising with them. Humans continue to burn fossil fuels and spew greenhouse gases into the atmosphere – and the rate of carbon emissions has continued to grow over the years. Other things are also helping to increase greenhouse gas levels and global temperatures. For example, trees and forests suck CO2 out of the atmosphere in order to grow, but deforestation has taken away those forests and their ability to “sequester” carbon. Cows raised for beef and dairy burp up loads of methane, which is a much more potent greenhouse gas than CO2. And some “natural feedbacks” are releasing more GHGs as the earth warms: for example, climate change leads to more forest fires which release CO2 from burning forests, and then more warming causes more forest fires which release more CO2, and so on; frozen methane at the bottom of the oceans is starting to melt and release into the atmosphere, and “permafrost” tundras filled with frozen methane are also starting to thaw, which warms the atmosphere and leads to more melting; and because floating ice in the Arctic Ocean is disappearing as it warms, there is less reflective ice to send the sun’s heat back into space, while the exposed ocean absorbs warmth and melts even more ice.

This graph shows the variation in average global temperature from 1880 until 2017, using the 1951-1980 average temperature as a baseline. Temperatures vary from year-to-year because of many factors impacting the climate, but there is a clear upward trend since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. 2016 was the warmest year on record, with a global average temperature 1°C above the 20th-century average (2017 was 2nd-warmest at 0.9°C). According to NASA, “seventeen of the 18 warmest years in the 136-year record all have occurred since 2001, with the exception of 1998.” | NASA


This map from NASA shows each area of the globe’s temperature difference from its 20th-century average, in the year 2017. Areas in the far north, including Alaska, Greenland, Russia, and the North Pole, are warming faster than the rest of the world, sometimes reaching 4°F or more. These areas hold many potential “feedback loops,” including methane from thawing permafrost and reduced reflection of the sun’s rays as Arctic sea ice disappears. Melting glaciers in Greenland also lead to rising oceans. An interactive version of the map with years from 1884-2017 is available here | NASA

A warmer atmosphere with higher concentrations of greenhouse gases has many climate-related and other consequences. Direct climate consequences include things such as hotter, longer and more severe heat waves; stronger and more frequent storms and other extreme weather; longer and deeper droughts; more frequent forest fires; stresses to natural environments and ecosystems; and sea level rise flooding coasts and islands worldwide. These climate consequences will impact humanity in many ways: for example, there will be infrastructure damage from storms, flooding and fires; more deaths and injuries from extreme weather and heat waves; migration away from flooding coasts, droughts and more; and political and economic tensions from all of these. It will take partnerships and collaboration to protect nature and people in this changing future.

Scientists are predicting that temperatures will continue to rise, potentially by several degrees Celsius before 2100. Global leaders and activists are putting effort and money into reducing emissions (through renewable energy, zero-emissions vehicles, lifestyle changes and more) and hopefully limiting warming in the process. This “climate mitigation” will absolutely help and may make the difference between climate change we can adapt to and a global catastrophe. Some activists and politicians have also called for specific temperature targets – usually 1.5°C or 2°C above the 20th-century average – but the reality is that every fraction of a degree can have major effects, so life under these targets will still be much different than today. In fact, we are already seeing many dramatic effects of climate change and more is on the way, and in the end even keeping under 2°C may be out of reach. This means that it’s incredibly important to prepare, adapt, and increase our resilience to climate impacts for all people.

This temperature projection from the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) AR5 report shows different temperature projections from 2005 through 2100, using the 1986-2005 average as a baseline. Under a high emissions scenario (RCP 8.5), the models show around a 4°C increase by 2100, with uncertainty from around 3°C up to 5.5°C. Under a low-emissions scenario (RCP 2.6), temperatures rise about 1°C by 2100, and models range between 0.25°C to just over 1.5°C. | IPCC

There is widespread debate about exactly how much temperatures will rise and how quickly, especially considering the choices we make around burning fossil fuels, “land-use changes,” and efforts to “sequester” (or pull out) CO2 from the atmosphere. Models compiled by the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), like the ones for the graph above, are used most often by advocates and policy-makers alike – but IPCC models have also been criticized for being too conservative. Some recent studies have even argued that temperature changes could be double those of forward by “official” IPCC and government estimates.

The Consequences of a Warmer World

Different areas of the globe will be uniquely affected by climate change. Just to name a few: the American Southwest is likely to see deeper and longer droughts and heat waves, which will endanger health and jeopardize food and water supplies; South Florida, which has most of its land within a few feet of sea-level, will see regular flooding from sea-level rise and more infrastructure damage and injuries from stronger hurricanes; and Greenland will see its many glaciers and ice-sheet slowly melt away, changing the entire landscape and leading to rising oceans. Even local effects can have global consequences, as well: for example, droughts in major agricultural areas can affect food prices at regional, national or global scales; and because we live in a globalized world, damage to ports from storms or sea-level rise may threaten international trade (and the prices and availability of goods worldwide). This means that it is important to study climate impacts on different regions and use that information to plan for adaptation and resilience.

Two photos of disasters. On the left, a silver car drives through a slightly flooded street in Miami, and a multi-story apartment building is visible in the background. On the right, a picture of a wildfire at night, with many trees engulfed in flames and large plumes of smoke.
Different areas of the world will experience different climate impacts. Miami, pictured on the left, is already dealing with occasional “nuisance flooding” during extreme high tides, and regular flooding will become worse with sea-level rise. California and other areas of the Western United States will have more frequent and larger wildfires – the picture on the right shows the “Rim Fire” outside of Yosemite National Park in 2013, which burned more than 250,000 acres. Smoke from Western wildfires can also travel across the country and affect air quality elsewhere. | Wikipedia (flooding) and US Department of Agriculture (fire)

Impacts on People and Specific Populations

Climate change has many consequences on the environment and society at-large. You may have seen images of hungry polar bears without enough sea ice to stay on as they hunt for food, or “bleached” coral reefs damaged by warmer and more acidic oceans (as water absorbs CO2, it becomes more acidic). As we mentioned above, though, climate change will not just affect the “environment” and wildlife – it will also affect society and the people in it. Some examples include:

  • We will see stronger and more frequent storms including hurricanes and the “atmospheric rivers” that hit the West Coast of the US. These storms will damage buildings and infrastructure (such as electricity grids), lead to flooding and landslides, and affect natural ecosystems such as coastal marshes. In terms of effects on society, there are likely to be more storm-related injuries and deaths, insurance and other financial losses, and economic disruptions from lost jobs and infrastructure. Some people may also move away from storm-damaged areas and not return home, essentially ending up as “climate refugees.”
  • Many parts of the world will experience longer and deeper droughts due to climate change; because more precipitation will fall as rain and not snow, areas reliant on snowpack melt for fresh-water (such as California) may also have difficulty accessing water year-round. This will lead to water shortages for personal use, potential agricultural losses, greater risks of wildfire, worse air quality because of fewer “breathing” plants and more wildfire smoke, and even electricity shortages from less water behind hydro-electric dams. Food prices may go up, which can contribute to malnutrition and other health consequences (or economic stress, as people have less to spend elsewhere after buying more-expensive food); lack of clean water can create many public health problems; wildfires can cause injuries, deaths, and economic damage; and poor air quality exacerbates respiratory illness (among other problems).
  • Extreme heat events (“heat waves”) will be more frequent, more intense temperature-wise, and longer lasting. According to one website, “Globally, extremely warm nights that used to come once in 20 years now occur every 10 years. And extremely hot summers, those more than 3 standard deviations above the historic average, are now observed in about 10% of the global land area, compared to 0.1-0.2% for the period 1951-1980.” Heat waves contribute to public health consequences including heat exhaustion and heatstroke, as well as respiratory issues from poor air quality that comes with hotter days. People tend to use more electricity for air-conditioning, which can stress the electric grid. Certain populations – including people with pre-existing health conditions, poor and elderly individuals, and people in urban areas – are more vulnerable to the consequences of extreme heat.

These climate consequences – and more – will not affect everybody equally. People of color, low-income individuals, those in developing countries, women, and other minorities have been shown to bear a disproportionate burden of the effects of climate change. Even more, those most affected by climate change are often the groups that contributed the least to it and have the fewest resources to adapt to its impacts. One group that is especially affected by climate change is people with disabilities – but so far, we have largely been left out of conversations around disproportionate burdens and ability to adapt. WID’s New Earth Disability project aims to ramp up this conversation and focus on ways to support the well-being and resilience of people with disabilities to the effects of climate change. Many leaders and activists have called for “climate justice” which recognizes this disproportionate burden and calls for a human rights approach to climate resilience; we also advocate for disability climate justice and a comprehensive approach to address our needs.

Thank you for reading about climate change, its effects, and the importance of disability climate justice. For more information, please look through the other sections of the NED website!

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NED Introduction

Welcome to New Earth Disability, which is the first major initiative aimed at addressing the intersection of climate change and disability worldwide. We are happy that you have discovered this extremely important topic and we strive to give you more resources to learn and make change in your community. Read on for more.

Why Climate Change and Disability?

Climate change is one of the most significant issues facing the world today, with consequences for the environment, economies, natural resources, public health and countless other parts of society. Many of these consequences endanger lives and well-being world-wide. The climate is changing largely because humans have been burning fossil fuels for the past 150 years – for example, using coal in electrical power plants or gasoline in cars and trucks – which releases carbon dioxide and other “greenhouse gases” (GHGs) into the atmosphere. These GHGs trap the sun’s heat, so when there are more in the atmosphere, it warms the Earth’s atmosphere itself (as well as the oceans, which also absorb heat). Atmospheric CO2 levels have increased from around 280 parts per million (ppm) in the 1870s to over 400 ppm today; as a result, average global temperatures have jumped around 1°C (1.8°F) in that timeframe, and scientists predict a change of 2°C or more in the coming decades. Warmer global temperatures lead to other changes including stronger and more frequent storms, hotter heat waves, deeper droughts, rising sea levels and more. These affect individuals and societies, for example through storms causing injuries or coastal flooding forcing people to find new homes. Although we can reduce our carbon emissions through renewable energy and other efforts, the Earth will continue to warm to some extent – and may warm drastically in the coming decades. That means that we must prepare for climate change and build our resilience moving forward.

A satellite view of Hurricane Irma, a large circular storm passing over Puerto Rico in 2018.
Hurricane Irma, a category 5 storm, was one of several highly destructive hurricanes in 2017 in the Atlantic and Gulf Coast region. Climate change is projected to lead to more frequent and stronger storms in the future. | NASA

People with disabilities (PWDs) are uniquely impacted by the effects of climate change. Disability covers a diverse array of impairments and populations, and climate change leads to a very broad set of consequences – so concerns for the disability community are incredibly complex. For example, somebody with a physical disability may have difficulty finding accessible evacuation shelters during storms, while a person with chronic health conditions may experience exhaustion or even heat-stroke during heat waves. As we adapt to climate change, we must focus on disability-inclusive adaptation and climate resilience at every level possible.
Some examples of the connections between climate change and disability include:

  • Natural disasters: Climate change will lead to more frequent and intense natural disasters, such as hurricanes, flood-causing downpours, or wildfires. People with disabilities are especially vulnerable during natural disasters: they have difficulty evacuating hard-hit areas, escaping damaged buildings, finding accessible shelters, and finding medical and personal support care during emergencies. Therefore, there should be comprehensive disaster readiness and response (DRR) that includes the needs of PWDs.
  • Extreme heat: Climate change contributes to hotter and longer heat waves, where a string of extremely hot days and nights can stress people’s health. Many types of disabilities make it harder to manage extreme heat, and because people with disabilities face higher poverty levels on average, they may have lower-quality housing with less access to air-conditioning (AC) will. Individuals also may not have easy access to cooling shelters, depending on their living situation (i.e limited access to transportation, nearby accessible shelters, or personal support needs in cooling areas). This all puts PWDs at greater risk of life-threatening heat exhaustion or heatstroke during extreme heat events. To improve health and safety, governments and other planners should increase the availability of accessible cooling shelters, provide disability supports at those shelters, improve housing insulation and AC (especially for low-income PWDs), and provide electric utility discounts for PWDs who need them.
  • Climate migration: Hundreds of millions to well over 1 billion people may be displaced due to the consequences of climate change in the coming decades. Some reasons for moving include abandoning flooding shorelines or drought-ridden areas, being displaced by a climate-related natural disaster and never moving back, or even escaping from violent conflict sparked by climate-related effects (i.e. wars over limited water resources). However, it may be difficult for PWDs to move: they may not be able to find accessible transportation or housing, they may not be able to keep healthcare/social services, their personal support networks may become scattered, or they may simply be turned away at borders because of their disability. It is important to guarantee accessible transportation and housing, maintain support networks and medical services, and ensure that migration law does not discriminate based on disability.

These climate-related issues and more will take massive efforts to address. Because so many lives are at stake, we must start those efforts now – and for the sake of people with disabilities, in the most comprehensive way possible. That will require everything from research, to rebuilding infrastructure and services, to creating partnerships between organizations and countries, to enforcing international law. But most importantly, it will take resources, focus, energy, and teamwork. And it is important to start now.

A Red Cross shelter set up in a high school gymnasium, with foldable cots with pillows and blankets and staff in the background.]
Inclusive emergency shelters should always have accessible pathways, personal support, medical supplies and well-trained staff. | FEMA/George Armstrong

New Earth Disability at

The World Institute on Disability’s “New Earth Disability” (NED) initiative began in 2014 as a blog exploring the intersections of climate change and disability. Over the past several years, it has grown to include detailed research, publications, presentations, and direct partnerships toward inclusive climate resilience efforts. We strive to educate the public, including climate change and disability stakeholders, collaborate with allies and advocate for this important and diverse community. We hope you will join us in this effort.

This section of the WID website is broken up into several topics, from an overview of climate change to the effects of specific climate-related issues. We are continually expanding our research and partnerships – so check back regularly. We are always looking for more partners and collaborators as well, so also please feel free to get in touch with Alex Ghenis, the NED project manager, at

In addition to this NED introduction page, NED online offers:

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